Australian politicians have sleepwalked into a housing affordability “crisis” because they were hooked on property taxes and votes, a think tank has warned.
Demographia, a global company based in the US, released an annual report this week that ranked Sydney as the second-most expensive city for housing in the world.
It divided Sydney’s median house price ($1.077 million) by its median household income ($88,000) to roughly estimate it would take 12.2 years’ wages to buy a home – better than Hong Kong (18.1 years) but worse than Vancouver (11.8), Auckland (10) and San Jose (9.6).
Using the same measure, Melbourne (9.5 years), Adelaide (6.6), Brisbane (6.2) and Perth (6.1) also made it into the top 20 of the 406 cities on the list.
Wayne Matthew, the Australian spokesman for Demographia, told The New Daily that our politicians are “only just starting to realise” the extent of the problem.
The report’s release coincided with the first press conference of newly appointed NSW Premier Gladys Berejiklian, who pledged on Monday to tackle housing affordability, calling it the “biggest issue people have across the state”.
On the same day, senior figures in the Turnbull government made it known that housing affordability will be an “extraordinarily high” priority in 2017.
Politicians have sleepwalked into the “crisis” because they initially saw no problem with the rapid increases in prices, or were too scared of voter backlash to intervene, Demographia’s Mr Matthew said.
“Initially, the Australian dream seemed to be paying fabulous dividends. People’s property prices were going up and they felt good about that. As prices went up, people were able to leverage the equity in the increased property to buy other properties as investments to rent out,” he said.
“That all looked good and enterprising, however it has now caught up with us, particularly in Sydney.
“There have been too many people benefiting from the investment wave, but the goose that laid the golden egg is becoming a millstone around the necks of young people.
“It’s going to create great chasms in our society, with young people being bitter that they can’t afford the home their parents had and that they can’t realise the same dreams. Australia has always been a country where people have had a right to a roof over their head that they could aspire to own themselves, but that great Australian dream is being smashed.”
There are two distinct sides to the debate over housing reform. There are those who argue for supply-side measures (often conservatives, such as the Liberal Party) and those who argue for demand-side measures (such as Labor, which has promised to reduce negative gearing).
Demographia’s argument, as a conservative think tank, is that land prices are high because of an artificial undersupply imposed by state governments, who fear voter backlash if they free up large plots of land for development or allow more high-rise apartments.
“State governments have been concerned about stepping into the market and offering lower-priced land on the basis that they’re fearful it could affect other property prices where investors are dependent upon equity to maintain a balance in borrowings they’ve undertaken,” Mr Matthew said.
“The reality is, and international experience has shown, that’s not what occurs.”
Dr Ashton De Silva, an economist with expertise in the housing market, agreed that supply is “probably the most important factor”, but said Demographia’s data should be treated with caution.
The measure used by the think tank – median house price divided by median household income – is “problematic” because the way home loans are funded varies widely between countries, Dr De Silva told The New Daily.
“I’m very circumspect about this kind of report. I know that Sydney and Melbourne house prices are very high, and I know this causes a great deal of hardship in the community. However, I’m not sure if the problem is as extreme as they say.”
Professor Tony Dalton, a housing expert at the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, said supply is an “important” factor because of the nation’s high rate of immigration, but does not tell the “full story”.
Overly generous tax concessions for landlords, a lack of social housing, and a concentration of “good jobs” in the inner city are also crucial factors, Professor Dalton told The New Daily.
“There are very big differences between house prices in central city areas and the periphery. That’s because of the way we’ve organised and designed our cities. We’ve got all the good jobs, those with greater security and higher income, within a 10 to 12km radius of the central business district.”
To fix the problem, governments shouldn’t focus just on freeing up land. They should also curb negative gearing and capital gains tax concessions and invest more in outer suburb infrastructure and social housing, Professor Dalton said.
“We’ve got first home buyers bidding for properties alongside cashed-up, affluent people who are able to bid for properties for investment purposes.
“Meanwhile, most western developed countries have a social housing system that’s much bigger and more robust than Australia. We are a standout in terms of how little of that sort of housing we provide.”
The Forth Road Bridge is to remain shut until the new year after faults were discovered in its steel work, Scotland’s Transport Minister Derek Mackay has said.
The decision to close the bridge was taken by the Scottish Government after inspections carried out by specialist engineers and following advice and
assessment of the fault by independent experts.
Work is already under way to repair the crossing and it is expected to be reopened to traffic in January.
The complete closure of the bridge came into force at midnight, with major tailbacks experienced on diversion routes at rush hour.
Mr MacKay said the decision was “not taken lightly”, and steps are being taken to lessen the impact of the closure.
The problem was first identified during a routine inspection on Tuesday.
Traffic was restricted that evening but it was later decided that the bridge should be closed entirely.
Additional rail, ferry and park-and-ride facilities are to be put in place.
Emergency service vehicles will still be able to use the bridge when responding to calls.
Engineers said a 20mm crack in a truss under the southbound carriageway close to the bridge’s north tower could not have been predicted and happened quickly.
Continuing to allow traffic to use the bridge would “increase the risk of causing extensive secondary damage to the structure”.
Mr Mackay said: “Every effort is being made to open the bridge as quickly as possible but safety is the main priority, however these works are weather dependent given the height and location of the bridge.
“We are aware of the potential economic impact, for strategic traffic in the east of Scotland and on people living in local communities.
“This is an unprecedented challenge in the maintenance of the Forth Road Bridge. On balance following advice from engineers and independent experts, the full closure is essential for the safety of the travelling public and to prevent further damage to the structure of the bridge.
“The bridge operators Amey have a robust inspection team in place and these defects are problems that have only occurred in the last number of weeks.
“We are taking every step we can to lessen the impact of this closure. Action now will mean that any closure is much shorter than it might be if we waited.”
Chartered engineer Mark Arndt, from Amey, said: “This is a complex engineering challenge. The component failure is in a difficult-to-access location and our response is also highly dependent on weather conditions.
“We continue to work around the clock on inspections, assessments and calculations along with the development of designs to effect the necessary repairs, while at the same time mobilising all the resources required to reopen the bridge as soon as is possible.”
Late last year a United States law framed in the name of world peace quietly reached its long arm into a small Melbourne tribunal, persuading it to let a large armaments manufacturer override Australian human rights legislation.
In a decision that went largely unremarked upon, the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (VCAT) agreed to let Thales Australia Ltd and its subsidiary ADI Munitions discriminate racially against their employees, job applicants and contract workers.
The companies won a five-year exemption from six sections of the Equal Opportunity Act so they could comply with stringent US export laws that describe who can and who cannot have access to American military technology and know-how.
Simon Rice, an Australian National University law professor, could only sigh. He is an almost lone voice against the Americans’ capacity for such strongarm tactics in Australian courts.
“It’s legal imperialism,” says Rice, who chairs the ACT Law Reform Advisory Council. “It’s the US saying to everybody in the world: You will deal with us on the terms we will dictate to you.”
There have been scores of such decisions in small courts across the nation since at least 2003, when the Queensland Anti-Discrimination Tribunal granted Boeing Australia Holdings some of the first such exemptions.
Because the Australian government relies heavily on US military technology, the big defence manufacturers operating here have, for more than a decade, made a practice of applying for exemptions from our equal opportunity laws so they can stay sweet with the US State Department. All applications, except one in Queensland, have been granted, allowing the companies to bar access to certain employees and contractors to positions where they would have access to sensitive US military goods and services.
This means the workforce is segregated, so that the “wrong” people are not given certain positions, as spelt out by the US International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), according to Rice, who advises our federal parliamentary human rights committee.
Because the ITAR, which governs the terms with which an importing country can use American defence technology, requires companies to discriminate on the basis of birth or nationality, it conflicts directly with Australian state and territory human rights legislation. Companies either persuade our legal authorities to let them off the hook or they don’t get US State Department clearance to access exported US defence technology.
“It is easier for the companies to get a local exemption than to get this clearance,” explains Rice.
Some people are outright denied access to sensitive American defence exports because their country of birth or dual nationality is on an ITAR list of “proscribed” nations.
The list changes from time to time and barred nations currently include Afghanistan, China, Cuba, Cyprus, Fiji, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Syria and Vietnam – the ancestral homes of many Australian migrants.
There was a salient reminder this week of the reasons for US nervousness over technology security. Whistleblower Edward Snowden revealed via German magazine Der Spiegel that Chinese spies had stolen design plans for the Joint Strike Fighter, the aircraft meant to reinforce US aerial dominance. Australia is spending billions of dollars on the same planes.
American lawyers specialising in export laws have described the ITAR as unparalleled in scope, as it reaches across the entire globe. It’s not just about arms, but a whole gamut of hardware and software used for military purposes or space research. It includes ships, planes, lasers and satellite technology, and “export” can simply mean transferring information – even, possibly, according to one analyst, sending an email.
Australia’s foremost specialist in space law, Professor Steven Freeland of the University of Western Sydney, sees extra benefits beyond national security for the US as it enforces the ITAR to regulate who can use American satellite technology.
“In the area of space technology, the US are still the superpower and they want to stay there, despite developments in China and Russia, so they’re very sensitive about their weapons technology going to other countries,” he tells The Saturday Paper. “In its simplest terms, space technology is regarded as akin to missile technology.”
While the ITAR has a benevolent motive in wanting to stop sensitive technology falling into the wrong hands, it also has the effect of enabling the US to retain a competitive advantage, he says.
“You won’t find that motivation explicitly in the official documents,” Freeland says.
However, he is less worried than Rice about ITAR’s reach.
“It’s quite common where people are dealing with national security issues to say: Sorry, but we get to choose the sort of people who work there because we don’t want them to have access,” he says.
Rice argues that the state department is dictating the private behaviour of individuals and companies outside the US, causing them to act unlawfully in their own countries.
Fines and jail terms
The state department can fine offending individuals and businesses up to $US1 million per violation for breaching ITAR requirements. It can ban companies from using American military exports and jail offenders for up to 10 years.
In a case that sent a message to universities, John Reece Roth, a former Tennessee professor of electrical engineering, was jailed for four years in 2009 for breaching the ITAR by providing information on drone technology to students from Iran and China.
Boeing was fined $US3.8 million in 2001, $US15 million in 2006 and $US3 million in 2008 for ITAR breaches and other companies have also been hit hard.
By comparison, breaches here of Australian anti-discrimination and equal opportunity law may lead to an apology or “small value financial compensation”, Australian defence industry lawyer Jane Elise Bates pointed out in the journal Security Challenges in 2012.
“From an economic perspective the balance is certainly in favour of continuing the status quo and seeking exemptions as required to permit the conduct of racial discrimination,” Bates wrote.
In the latest decision granting Thales Australia exemptions in November, VCAT member Anna Dea said the company’s work for the Australian Defence Force, including ship, aircraft, vehicle and munitions manufacture, generates more than $861 million in annual sales. It employs 871 people in Victoria, with an estimated $2 billion worth of projects lined up over the next eight to 10 years.
Dea listed the same reasons that have persuaded nearly every Australian decision-maker in her position for the past decade or so to grant exemptions, faced with the brutal reality of the US ITAR. The company’s work is important to Australia’s defence capability, the state economy and jobs that could otherwise go elsewhere, she said. She noted that no employees or union representatives made any submissions to the tribunal.
But it was not always so.
When Thales and ADI sought similar exemptions in the State Administrative Tribunal of Western Australia in 2005, the commissioner for equal opportunity, the WA Trades and Labour Council, the state’s Ethnic Communities Council and Western Australians for Racial Equality all objected.
The companies won a five-year exemption anyway.
As Australia negotiated a new defence treaty with the US in 2008, judges and decision-makers for a while bridled at having to bow to American law, after a parliamentary committee recommended the federal government seek exemptions from the ITAR.
In 2007, the then VCAT president, Justice Stuart Morris, voiced his concern about being asked by Boeing Australia Holdings to depart from local legislation to provide jobs.
“Such a departure is only sought because important aerospace technology is subject to an American law which places American security ahead of this human rights standard. One might ask: why should not the Americans give way?” he said.
“One suspects that the ITAR is misconceived … But then, I rather doubt that the United States government will back down from ITAR in the face of a decision of the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal.”
VCAT deputy president Cate McKenzie described the nationality-based prohibitions in the ITAR as a “blunt instrument” when she granted a partial exemption to BAE Systems Australia Limited in 2008.
“Assessment of individuals on a non-stereotyped basis, or training and education about the importance of the obligation of secrecy, would seem to me to be a better approach,” she said.
Little choice for legal bodies
At the end of 2008, the president of the Queensland Anti-Discrimination Tribunal, Douglas Savage, refused exemptions sought by the Boeing group. The companies’ opportunities should not be at the expense of employees or potential employees, said Savage, whose decision still stands.
He doubted that refugees who had risked their lives to flee nations whose regimes they opposed were a security concern. Any concern could equally apply to US or Australian citizens, he said.
Rice sees such opposition as having faded. In particular, although they have appeared in past hearings, he is disappointed at unions’ failure to take this on as a cause.
“They haven’t been very effective or strategic in their arguments,” he says.
Four years ago, Rice argued in The Canberra Law Review that courts and tribunals in reality “have had little real choice, in the face of employers’ (poorly substantiated) claims that without the exemption the defence contracts will be breached with serious consequences, including the loss of jobs.”
There have been at least 25 more decisions allowing exemptions since he wrote that. Thirteen were in New South Wales, where there are no public hearings and exemptions are gazetted by the attorney-general. Two were in the ACT, two in Victoria, six in South Australia and one in Western Australia.
“I’ve been waiting for one tribunal to break ranks,” says Rice. “It seems to me they’re spooked. They’re between a rock and a hard place. You have to have sympathy. This is a political issue. The tribunals are being asked to decide it and they shouldn’t be.”
However, tribunals should be more rigorous in making these self-interested businesses spell out the exact consequences if they complied with local human rights laws, Rice says.
The tough US laws are unpopular around the world, particularly with close allies such as Canada, and the Obama administration recently tweaked them. But as VCAT’s Anna Dea explained in her most recent Thales decision, “it remains the case that information about a workforce member’s nationality and national origin is still required”.
Freeland acknowledges the role of US domestic politics. “Americans are very good at protecting US interests. It’s what you pay your politicians for, in one sense,” he says.
“We may not like it, but if the American administration were not seen to protect US interests, it wouldn’t last long in government. Americans have a particularly patriotic or provincial view that the US is the centre of the universe.”
Canada, accustomed to its gigantic pushy neighbour, has over the past few years negotiated changes with the US State Department that allow companies to comply with the ITAR as well as Canadian privacy and human rights legislation.
The Canadian government acted following public controversies, including a ruckus when General Motors Canada sent immigrant workers home with pay after the company was fined $US20 million for breaching the ITAR when it manufactured certain military vehicles.
There is no such outcry here. Instead, Freeland says, Australian governments continue to tolerate the ITAR’s workings because of the trade-off of lucrative business investment.
There are many man-made structures that may mean more or less to different people. After touring through most of Europe, the UK and Oceania, these are my top ten, inspirational structures. They are not all buildings, but each one demonstrates the ingenuity of man to design, construct, achieve a goal and overcome adversity in one way or another.
10. The Eiffel Tower/La tour Eiffel
An iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris. It was named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, who designed and built the tower. Erected in 1889 as the entrance arch to the 1889 World’s Fair, it was initially criticised by some of France’s leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but has become both a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world. The tower is the tallest structure in Paris and the most-visited paid monument in the world; 6.98 million people ascended it in 2011.The tower received its 250 millionth visitor in 2010.
The Eiffel Tower – La tour Eiffel – Photo: Benh Lieu Song
9.Neuschwanstein Castle/Schloss Neuschwanstein
Built on a rugged hill over the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany. The palace was built by King Ludwig II of Bavaria as a retreat and as an homage to Richard Wagner. Ludwig paid for the palace out of his personal fortune and by means of extensive borrowing, rather than Bavarian public funds. The palace was intended as a personal refuge for the reclusive king, but after his death in 1886, the castle was willed to the Bavarian state and was opened to public. Since then more than 61 million people have visited the castle.
Schloss Neuschwanstein – Photo: Thomas Wolf
8. The London Gherkin
30 St Mary Axe (widely known informally as The Gherkin and previously as the Swiss Re Building) is a commercial skyscraper in London’s primary financial district, the City of London. It was completed in December 2003 and opened in April 2004. With 41 storeys, it is 180 metres (591 ft.) tall and stands on the former site of the Baltic Exchange, which was extensively damaged in 1992.
30 St. Mary Axe – Photo: Aurelien Guichard
7. Centre Georges Pompidou
The Centre Georges Pompidou commonly referred to as Centre Pompidou or the Pompidou Centre in English is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil and the Marais. It was designed in the style of high-tech architecture by the architectural team of Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, and Gianfranco Franchini.
Centre Georges Pompidou – Photo: Leland
6.Church of St. Clement of Ohrid – Skopje/Црква на СветиКлимент Охридски –Скопје
The Church of Saint Clement of Ohrid or Соборна црква – Свети Климент Охридски, but is often called simply Soborna Crkva (Соборна црква) and located on Boulevard Saint Clement of Ohrid in Skopje, Macedonia is the largest Orthodox cathedral of the Macedonian Orthodox Church today. The construction of the Orthodox Cathedral church was designed by Slavko Brezovski, began in 1972 and was consecrated on 12 August 1990, on the 1150th anniversary of the birth of the church patron, St. Clement of Ohrid.
The Church of Saint Clement of Ohrid – Photo: Yemc
5.Basilica Sagrada Familia – Barcelona
The Basílica i Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Família or the Basilica and Expiatory Church of the Holy Family, is a large Roman Catholic church in Barcelona, Spain, designed by Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí (1852–1926). Although incomplete, the church is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and in November 2010 Pope Benedict XVI consecrated and proclaimed it a minor basilica, as rather than a cathedral which must be the seat of a bishop.
Construction of the church commenced in 1882 and Gaudí became involved in 1883, taking over the project and transforming it with his architectural and engineering style, combining Gothic and curvilinear Art Nouveau forms. Gaudí devoted his last years to the project, and at the time of his death at age 73 in 1926 less than a quarter of the project was complete. Sagrada Família’s construction progressed slowly, as it relied on private donations and was interrupted by the Spanish Civil War, only to resume intermittent progress in the 1950s. Construction passed the midpoint in 2010 with some of the project’s greatest challenges remaining and an anticipated completion date of 2026, the centenary of Gaudi’s death.
The Basilica and Expiatory Church of the Holy Family – Photo: Bernard Gagnon
4.Tower bridge – London
Tower Bridge (built 1886–1894) is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London which crosses the River Thames. It is close to the Tower of London, from which it takes its name, and has become theiconic symbol of London.
The bridge consists of two towers tied together at the upper level by means of two horizontal walkways, designed to withstand the horizontal forces exerted by the suspended sections of the bridge on the landward sides of the towers. The vertical component of the forces in the suspended sections and the vertical reactions of the two walkways are carried by the two robust towers. The bascule pivots and operating machinery are housed in the base of each tower. The bridge’s present colour scheme dates from 1977, when it was painted red, white and blue for Queen Elizabeth II’s silver jubilee. Originally it was painted a mid greenish-blue colour.
Tower Bridge; Photo: C M Glee
3. Standedge Tunnel – Marsden to Diggle
The canal tunnel on the Huddersfield Narrow Canal, is the highest, longest and oldest canal in the United Kingdom. The canal took 17 years to build and opened in 1811. It operated from that time until it closed in 1943. The canal tunnel was re-opened in May 2001 and is administered by the Canal & River Trust. It is 16,499 feet (5,029 m) long, 636 feet (194 m) underground at its deepest point, and 643 feet (196 m) above sea level. It is one of four tunnels through the Pennines, two being used for rail traffic and another to connect them. Only one tunnel is now used for rail. The tunnel was built without a tow path and boats had to be “legged” through the canal which could take up to 3 hours if a boat was loaded. It only wide enough for one-way traffic, therefore boats work alternately to obtain passage. From the 2009 season, boats have been allowed to travel through the tunnel under their own power, with a chaperone on the boat, followed by a service vehicle through the parallel disused railway tunnel.
Standedge Canal Tunnel – Photo; 54North
2. Sydney Opera House, Australia
The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Located on Bennelong Point in Sydney Harbour, close to the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the facility is adjacent to the Sydney CBD and the Royal Botanic Gardens, between Sydney and Farm Coves.
Designed by Danish architect Jørn Utzon, the facility formally opened on 20 October 1973 after Utzon’s 1957 selection as winner of an international design competition. The NSW Government, led by Premier Joseph Cahill, authorised work to begin in 1958, with Utzon directing construction. The government’s decision to build Utzon’s design is often overshadowed by circumstances that followed, including cost and scheduling overruns as well as the architect’s ultimate resignation.
This is Australia’s most iconic building and is one of the most popular visitor attractions in Australia. More than seven million people visit the site each year, with 300,000 people participating annually in a guided tour of the facility.Identified as one of the 20th century’s most distinctive buildings and one of the most famous performing arts centres in the world.
Sydney Opera House – Photo: H Peterswald
1. The Royal Liver Building – Liverpool
The Royal Liver Building is a Grade I listed building located in Liverpool, England. It is sited at the Pier Head and along with the neighbouring Cunard Building and Port of Liverpool Building is one of Liverpool’s Three Graces, which line the city’s waterfront. It is also part of Liverpool’s UNESCO designated World Heritage Maritime Mercantile City.
Opened in 1911, the building is the purpose-built home of the Royal Liver Assurance group, which had been set up in the city in 1850 to provide locals with assistance related to losing a wage-earning relative. One of the first buildings in the world to be built using reinforced concrete, the Royal Liver Building stands at 90 m (300 feet) tall. It was the tallest storied building in Europe from completion until 1932 and the tallest in the United Kingdom until 1961. The Royal Liver Building is now however only the joint-fourth tallest structure in the City of Liverpool, having been overtaken in height by West Tower, Radio City Tower and Liverpool Cathedral.
The Royal Liver Building – Photo: Alan Fairweather
Today the Royal Liver Building is one of the most recognisable landmarks in the city of Liverpool and is home to two fabled Liver Birds that watch over the city and the sea. Legend has it that were these two birds to fly away, then Liverpool would cease to exist.
Another popular legend states that the Liver Birds are a male and female pair, the female looking out to sea, watching for seamen to return safely home, whilst the male looks towards the city making sure the pubs are open.
Dubai, long champion of all things biggest, longest and most expensive, will soon have some competition from neighboring Saudi Arabia.
Dubai’s iconic Burj Khalifa, the world’s tallest building, could be stripped of its Guinness title if Saudi Arabia succeeds in its plans to construct the even larger Kingdom Tower in Jeddah — a prospect looking more likely as work begins next week, according to Construction Weekly.
Kingdom Tower Picture: Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture.
Consultants Advanced Construction Technology Services have recently announced testing materials to build the 3,280-feet (1 kilometer) skyscraper (the Burj Khalifa, by comparison, stands at a meeker 2,716 feet, or 827 meters).
The Kingdom Tower, estimated to cost $1.23 billion, would have 200 floors and overlook the Red Sea. Building it will require about 5.7 million square feet of concrete and 80,000 tons of steel, according to the Saudi Gazette.
Building a structure that tall, particularly on the coast, where saltwater could potentially damage it, is no easy feat. The foundations, which will be 200 feet (60 meters) deep, need to be able to withstand the saltwater of the nearby ocean. As a result, Advanced Construction Technology Services will test the strength of different concretes.
Wind load is another issue for buildings of this magnitude. To counter this challenge, the tower will change shape regularly.
“Because it changes shape every few floors, the wind loads go round the building and won’t be as extreme as on a really solid block,” Gordon Gill explained to Construction Weekly. Gill is a partner at Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture, the design architects for the project.
Delivering the concrete to higher floors will also be a challenge. Possibly, engineers could use similar methods to those employed when building the Burj Khalifa; 6 million cubic feet of concrete was pushed through a single pump, usually at night when temperatures were low enough to ensure that it would set.
Though ambitious, building the Kingdom Tower should be feasible, according to Sang Dae Kim, the director of the Council on Tall Buildings.
“At this point in time we can build a tower that is one kilometre, maybe two kilometres. Any higher than that and we will have to do a lot of homework,” he told Construction Weekly.
George Brown is a decorated soldier and health professional and 40 year veteran in the field of emergency nursing and paramedical practice, both military and civilian areas. He has senior management positions in the delivery of paramedical services. Opinions expressed in these columns are solely those of the author and should not be construed as being those of any organization to which he may be connected.
He was born in the UK of Scottish ancestry from Aberdeen and a member of the Clan MacDougall. He is a member of the Macedonian community in Newcastle, and speaks fluent Macedonian. While this may seem a contradiction, it is his wife who is Macedonian, and as a result he embraced the Macedonian language and the Orthodox faith.
His interests include aviation and digital photography, and he always enjoys the opportunity to combine the two. Navigate to his Flickr site to see recent additions to his photo library.
Џорџ Браун е украсени војник и професионално здравствено лице и 40 годишен ветеран во областа на за итни случаи старечки и парамедицински пракса, двете воени и цивилни области. Тој има високи менаџерски позиции во испораката на парамедицински услуги. Мислењата изразени во овие колумни се исклучиво на авторот и не треба да се толкува како оние на било која организација тој може да биде поврзан.
Тој е роден во Велика Британија на шкотскиот потекло од Абердин и член на Kланот MacDougall. Тој е член на македонската заедница во Њукасл, и зборува течно македонски. Иако ова можеби изгледа контрадикција, тоа е неговата сопруга кој е македонски, и како резултат научил македонскиот јазик и ја примија православната вера.
Неговите интереси вклучуваат авијација и дигитална фотографија, и тој секогаш ужива во можност да се комбинираат двете. Отиди до неговиот Фликр сајт да видите последните дополнувања на неговата слика библиотека.